Thursday, May 29, 2008

Must know! Linux commands..

alias Create an alias
apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
break Exit from a loop
builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)

cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Display the contents of a file
cd Change Directory
cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions
chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp Copy one or more files to another location
cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut Divide a file into several parts

date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator
dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes
df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files
dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls’
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
du Estimate file space usage

echo Display message on screen
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env Environment variables
ethtool Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions

false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words, and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name

id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes

join Join lines on a common field

kill Stop a process from running

less Display output one screen at a time
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln Make links between files
local Create variables
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files

make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
mv Move or rename files or directories

netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory

quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas

ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines.
read read a line from standard input
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
remsync Synchronize remote files via email
return Exit a shell function
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

screen Terminal window manager
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sum Print a checksum for a file
symlink Make a new name for a file
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail Output the last part of files
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command

ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
useradd Create new user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor

watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Report all known instances of a command
which Locate a program file in the user’s path.
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP

xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
yes Print a string until interrupted

What is Apache and How it serving the webpage?

What is Apache :

Apache is a free, open-source web server software system that is pervasive on UNIX, Linux, and similar operating system types. It is also available for Windows and other operating systems.

Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality. These can range from server-side programming language support to authentication schemes. Some common language interfaces support mod_perl, mod_python, Tcl, and PHP. Popular authentication modules include mod_access, mod_auth, and mod_digest. A sample of other features include SSL and TLS support (mod_ssl), a proxy module, a useful URL rewriter (also known as a rewrite engine, implemented under mod_rewrite), custom log files (mod_log_config), and filtering support (mod_include and mod_ext_filter).

Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension module, mod_gzip, implemented to help with reduction of the size (weight) of web pages served over HTTP. Web-based blogging software such as WordPress, which run on Apache, are capable of allowing pages served to be reduced greatly in size through implementations of mod_gzip coupled with PHP, with the help of PHP’s gzdeflate and/or other methods.

How does the Apache serving the webpage:

When you connect to the URL of someone’s home page — say the notional we shall meet later on — you send a message across the Internet to the machine at that address. That machine, you hope, is up and running, its Internet connection is working, and it is ready to receive and act on your message.

URL stands for Universal Resource Locator. A URL such as comes in three parts:


So, in our example, <> is http, meaning that the browser should use HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol); is; and is “/ “, meaning the top directory of the host. Using HTTP/1.1, your browser might send the following request:

GET / HTTP/1.1

The request arrives at port 80 (the default HTTP port) on the host The message is again in three parts: a method (an HTTP method, not a URL method), that in this case is GET, but could equally be PUT, POST, DELETE, or CONNECT; the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) “/”; and the version of the protocol we are using. It is then up to the web server running on that host to make something of this message.

It is worth saying here — and we will say it again — that the whole business of a web server is to translate a URL either into a filename, and then send that file back over the Internet, or into a program name, and then run that program and send its output back. That is the meat of what it does: all the rest is trimming.

The host machine may be a whole cluster of hypercomputers costing an oil sheik’s ransom, or a humble PC. In either case, it had better be running a web server, a program that listens to the network and accepts and acts on this sort of message.

Differences between lighttpd and apache.

Below is some of the basic differences between lighttpd and apache.

Basic configuration


DocumentRoot /var/www/html
CustomLog /var/www/logs/access
ErrorLog /var/www/logs/error
User www
Group www


server.document-root = “/var/www/html”
accesslog.filename = “/var/www/logs/access”
server.errorlog = “/var/www/logs/error”
server.username = “www”
server.groupname = “www”
server.modules = ( “mod_accesslog” )

Authentication and Authorization .htaccess

AuthName “My Special Directory”
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /var/www/passwords/users
Order deny,allow
require valid-user


auth.backend = “htpasswd”
auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = “/var/www/passwords/users”
auth.require = ( “/special/” =>
“method” => “basic”,
“realm” => “My Special Directory”,
“require” => “valid-user”

Virtual Host configuration


NameVirtualHost *

ServerName “”
DocumentRoot “/var/www/hosts/scratch/docs”

ServerName “”
DocumentRoot “/var/www/hosts/sniff/docs”


$HTTP["host"] == “” {
server.document-root = “/var/www/hosts/scratch/docs/” }
$HTTP["host"] == “” {
server.document-root = “/var/www/hosts/sniff/docs/” }

Virtual Host Modules:


LoadModule vhost_alias_module modules/
VirtualDocumentRoot /var/www/hosts/%1/docs


server.modules = ( …, “mod_evhost”, … )
evhost.path-pattern = “/var/www/hosts/%3/docs”



LoadModule php5_module modules/
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php


server.modules = ( …, “mod_fastcgi”, … )
fastcgi.server =
( “.php” =>
( “localhost” =>
“socket” => “/tmp/php-fastcgi.socket”,
“bin-path” => “/usr/local/bin/php”

Monitor the hard drive temperature via command line

You can monitor the hard drive temperature via command line. For that you need to install the command binary hddtemp.

In redhat servers you can install using the command yum.


yum install hddtemp


In other server like CENTOS, FEDORA and FreeBSD you need to install it from source file with the steps given below.


>> Download the DB file

cd /etc


>> Download the source

cd /usr/local


tar -zxvf hddtemp-0.3-beta7.tar.gz

cd hddtemp-0.3-beta7


make install


That’s all. You have done It :)

Typical Output of hddtemp command.


What is Mod_dosevasive?How to install?


mod_dosevasive is an evasive maneuvers module for Apache to provide evasive action in the event of an HTTP DoS or DDoS attack or brute force attack. It is also designed to be a detection and network management tool, and can be easily configured to talk to ipchains, firewalls, routers, and etcetera. mod_dosevasive presently reports abuses via email and syslog facilities.

Detection is performed by creating an internal dynamic hash table of IP Addresses and URIs, and denying any single IP address from any of the following:

* Requesting the same page more than a few times per second
* Making more than 50 concurrent requests on the same child per second
* Making any requests while temporarily blacklisted (on a blocking list)

Installation steps:

tar -zxvf mod_dosevasive.1.8.tar.gz
cd mod_dosevasive
/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -iac mod_dosevasive.c
then you pico /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf
and search for the lines
LoadModule dosevasive_module libexec/
AddModule mod_dosevasive.c
you have to be sure they where added
then add these lines

DOSHashTableSize 3097
DOSPageCount 2
DOSSiteCount 50
DOSPageInterval 1
DOSSiteInterval 1
DOSBlockingPeriod 10

Save the file and restart apache.

You can see results in server logs.

Some OpenVz Commands

Following are some important commands which are normally used while working on a Hardware Node.

1) vzlist -a : Shows list of all the VPS’s hosted on the Node.
2) vzctl start VPS_ID: To start the VPS.
3) vzctl stop VPS_ID : To stop (Shut Down) the VPS
4) vzctl status VPS_ID : To view the status of the particular VPS
5) vzctl stop VPS_ID –fast : to stop the VPS quickly and forcefully
6) vzctl enter VPS_ID : To enter in a particular VPS

Configuration Commands

1) vzctl set VPS_ID –hostname –save: To set the Hostname of a VPS.
2) vzctl set VPS_ID –ipadd –save : To add a new IP to the hosting VPS.
3) vzctl set VPS_ID –ipdel –save : To delete the IP from VPS.
4) vzctl set VPS_ID –userpasswd root:new_password –save : to reset root password of a VPS.
5) vzctl set VPS_ID –nameserver –save : To add the nameserver IP’s to the VPS.
6) vzctl exec VPS_ID command : To run any command on a VPS from Node.
6) vzyum VPS_ID install package_name : To install any package/Software on a VPS from Node.

Here VPS_ID refers to the ID of the Particular VPS.

Friday, May 16, 2008

Apache down; clear semaphores

ipcs -s | grep apache | perl -e 'while () { @a=split(/\s+/); print `ipcrm sem $a[1]`}'

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

What is IMAP and what are its specific advantages over POP3?

What is IMAP and what are its specific advantages over POP3?

IMAP stands for "Internet Message Access protocol) - a email service which helps accessing your mailbox from different computers and locations. The IMAP service allows the user to download only the message headers and decide if they want to actually download the rest of the message and the attachments.

IMAP was designed to overcome some problems with POP behavior and provide more features for delivery and management of e-mail. With IMAP, mail is kept on the mail server and is managed there by a series of commands sent to the server by your client. Copies of messages and attachments are transferred to a email client only when one request them.

By default, only descriptive information about your messages is sent to your client. This works very well over slow links or for access from devices with limited computing or storage capacity such as a PDA, mobile phone or dialup internet access.

This feature makes downloading large attachments on a slow connection more manageable and efficient. In addition, the IMAP service provides folders for the user to store emails and attachments on the server so that they can retrieve those stored messages when they log into the server from different computers.

In practical areas where POP is weak, with respect to online/disconnected operation, are strengths for IMAP, since online access was its original design center. These new features provide powerful benefits that allows the user to create folders for received and sent messages to be retrieved from any computer.

The advantages of IMAP is that it is more feature-rich and allows you to read your e-mail from any location and any device with IMAP support.

Some specific advantages of IMAP over POP include:

  • Robust folders for storing received and sent messages
  • Freedom for user to download attachments at will
  • Provision for determining message structure without downloading entire message.
  • Selective fetching of individual MIME body parts.
  • Server-based searching and selection to minimize data transfer.
  • Ability to append messages to a remote folder.
  • Ability to set standard and user-defined message status flags.
  • Support for simultaneous update and update discovery in shared folders.
  • New mail notification.
  • Ability to manipulate remote folders other than INBOX.
  • Remote folder management (list/create/delete/rename).
  • Support for folder hierarchies.
  • Suitable for accessing non-email data; e.g., NetNews, documents.
  • In IMAP, when a client program performs any operation on a mailbox, the server will automatically include in its response notification of any new messages that have arrived since the last notification.
  • IMAP's ability to manipulate remote folders other than INBOX is fundamental to online and disconnected operation. This means being able to save messages from one folder to a different one, being able to access archived messages subsequently, and allowing for multiple incoming message folders.

Monday, May 12, 2008

Thursday, May 8, 2008

See list of MySQL databases via GNU Linux shell command line

Key words and phrases:
mysql list databases command line check if database exists
Description & Info:

Dirty secret is this will work with Windows or anything else that runs MySQL, as well as the recommended Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat / RHEL (which is what CentOS really is) etc.

mysql -u root -p

(The long form, which is quite unnecessary, is " mysql --user=user-name --password=your-password")

Once in the MySQL command line utility:


Then to see what's in a particular database:

USE agaric_example

Think mySQL!

Create the Database File

The first step is to create the database file. Start the mySQL client and type the following command:

mysql> create database guestdb;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)


The command creates the the database, guestdb. If successful, you should receive a response like the one shown above.

After the database is created, we must select it to continue with our database building.

mysql> use guestdb;
Database changed

Now with our database selected, we are ready for the next step.

Create a Table

Next, you need to create a database table to hold your data. The SQL here defines a table. Below is the command and the output from the command. The database created below will be used in a web guestbook application.

mysql> create table guestTbl
-> (msgID int not null primary key auto_increment,
-> name varchar(30),
-> email varchar(30),
-> msgFrom varchar(30),
-> msgDate timestamp(14),
-> msgBody text);

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)


In this example, the create command creates a table named guestTbl. The table has six fields described below.

msgID - a unique number assigned to each entry. The field hold an integer value that is automatically incremented each time an entry is added.

name - a 30 character field holding the name of the guest.

email - a 30 character field holding the email address of the guest.

msgFrom - a 30 character field holding the location of the guest.

msgDate - the date and time the entry is added to the database.

msgBody - a text field holding a text message entered by the guest.

Our next step is to add data to the table.

Add data to the Table

Now we need to add some sample data to the table, so we can actually run some queries against it.

mysql> insert into guestTbl
-> (msgID, name, email, msgFrom, msgDate, msgBody) values
-> (NULL, 'Test User1', '','Smallville USA',now(),
-> 'This is the body for message 1.');

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.27 sec)


The above command adds one row to the database. If we repeat this process for three other users, we have enough data to perform a query on the table.

Query the Database

Now we can query our database. To retrieve all the data in the table, perform the following command.

mysql> select * from guestTbl;
| msgID | name | email |
msgFrom | msgDate | msgBody |
| 1 | Test User1 | |
Smallville USA | 20001117154626 | This is the body for message 1. |
| 2 | Test User2 | |
Smalltown USA | 20001117155043 | This is the body for message 2. |
| 3 | Test User3 | |
Smallcity CA | 20001117155201 | This is the body for message 3. |
| 4 | Test User4 | |
LittleTown CO | 20001117155319 | This is the body for message 4. |
4 rows in set (0.06 sec)


First off, you'll notice that if the data does not fit on a line, it is wrapped. All the data entered for the four test users is there. We can get cleaner looking output by selecting a couple of fields.

For example:

mysql> select name,email,msgFrom from guestTbl;
| name | email | msgFrom |
| Test User1 | | Smallville USA |
| Test User2 | | Smalltown USA |
| Test User3 | | Smallcity CA |
| Test User4 | | LittleTown CO |

4 rows in set (0.05 sec)


Quite a bit more readable.

How do I block an IP on my Linux server?

How do I block an IP on my Linux server?"
In order to block an IP on your Linux server you need to use iptables firewall. First you need to log into shell as root user. To block IP address you need to type iptables command as follows:
iptables -A INPUT -s IP-ADDRESS -j DROP
Replace IP-ADDRESS with actual IP address. For example if you wish to block ip address for whatever reason then type command as follows:
# iptables -A INPUT -s -j DROP

Block ports by adding the following firewall rules:

# Allow loopback access. This rule must come before the rules denying port access!!
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -p all -j ACCEPT - Rule for your computer to be able to access itself via the loopback
iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -p all -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 2049 -j DROP - Block NFS
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 2049 -j DROP - Block NFS
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 6000:6009 -j DROP - Block X-Windows
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 7100 -j DROP - Block X-Windows font server
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 515 -j DROP - Block printer port
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 515 -j DROP - Block printer port
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 111 -j DROP - Block Sun rpc/NFS
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 111 -j DROP - Block Sun rpc/NFS
iptables -A INPUT -p all -s localhost -i eth0 -j DROP - Deny packets which claim to be from your loopback interface.

Tuesday, May 6, 2008

Clearing all unwanted semaphores — Memory Tweak

for i in `ipcs | tail -80 |head -75 |cut -d ‘ ‘ -f2`; do ipcrm sem $i; done

ipcrm removes System V interprocess communication (IPC) objects and associated data structures from the system.’ as per the man pages.

Apache down!! Semget: No space left on device here.

Use this command if you get the error “Semget: No space left on device here” in apache error log. Make sure that you are replacing nobody with corresponding apache user.

‘’ipcrm sem `ipcs|grep nobody|awk ‘{print $2}’`'’


‘’ipcrm sem `ipcs|grep apache|awk ‘{print $2}’`'’


View the sem value using the below command

ipcs -ls


cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem

increase the value

echo “32000 32000 512 512″ > /proc/sys/kernel/sem

This happens on most of the server which has high apache actvity.

for i in `ipcs -s | grep nobody | awk '{print $2}'`; do ipcrm -s $i; done

Monday, May 5, 2008

File compression and decompressions

I am here to show you examples of how to use tar to zip and unzip two types of files ( tar.bz2, tar.gz)

Remember certain option defined, c for create, z for extract and t for test. v verbose, and f is file. There are 2 common archive people are interested in, bz2 and tar.gz (tgz). bz2 is more compress than tar.gz, but tar.gz is faster for creating and extracting.
To create a bz2 archive, if given list of files, use option j to indicate bz2

tar cjvf filename.tar.bz2 myfile1 myfile2 myfile3

To create a bz2 archive from a folder, if folder must be included in the archive, that means will be extracted with the folder

tar cjvf filename.tar.bz2 foldername/*

To create bz2 archive from a folder but the folder is not included in the tar file.

cd foldername; tar cjvf ../filename.tar.bz2

To test the tar file to see the content of the tar file, use t option.

tar tjvf filename.tar.bz2

To extract the tar file user x option.

tar  xjvf filename.tar.bz2

For tar.gz, use back the same command option but change everything from j to z, let say to create the tar.gz file from folder.

tar czvf filename.tar.gz foldername/*

For more information, check with man

Saturday, May 3, 2008

Commonly Used Port Numbers

Port Number Protocol
21 TCP FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
22 TCP/UDP SSH (ssh,scp copy or sftp)
23 TCP/UDP Telnet
25 TCP/UDP SMTP (for sending outgoing emails)
43 TCP WHOIS function
53 TCP/UDP DNS Server (Domain name service for DNS requests)


DHCP Server
DHCP Client
70 TCP Gopher Protocol
79 TCP Finger protocol
110 TCP POP3 (for receiving email)
119 TCP NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
143 TCP/UDP IMAP4 Protocol (for email service)
389 TCP/UDP LDAP (light weight directory access)
443 TCP Secure HTTP over SSL (https)
465 TCP Secure SMTP (email) using SSL
990 TCP/UDP Secure FTP using SSL
993 TCP Secure IMAP protocol over SSL (for emails)
1433 TCP/UDP Microsoft SQL server port
2082 TCP Cpanel default port
2083 TCP Cpanel over SSL
2086 TCP Cpanel Webhost Manager (default)
2087 TCP Cpanel Webhost Manager (with https)
2095 TCP Cpanel Webmail
2096 TCP Cpanel secure webmail over SSL
2222 TCP DirectAdmin Server Control Panel
3306 TCP/UDP MySQL Database Server
4643 TCP Virtuosso Power Panel
5432 TCP PostgreSQL Database Server
8080 TCP HTTP port (alternative one for port 80)
8087 TCP Plesk Control Panel Port (default)
8443 TCP Plesk Server Control Panel over SSL
9999 TCP Urchin Web Analytics
10000 TCP Webmin Server Control Panel
19638 TCP Ensim Server Control Panel

Port Number Dictionary

Port Description Status
0/TCP,UDP Reserved; do not use (but is a permissible source port value if the sending process does not expect messages in response) Official
1/TCP,UDP TCPMUX (TCP port service multiplexer) Official
5/TCP,UDP RJE (Remote Job Entry) Official
7/TCP,UDP ECHO protocol Official
9/TCP,UDP DISCARD protocol Official
11/TCP,UDP SYSTAT protocol Official
13/TCP,UDP DAYTIME protocol Official
15/TCP,UDP NETSTAT protocol Official
17/TCP,UDP QOTD (Quote of the Day) protocol Official
18/TCP,UDP Message Send Protocol (MSP) Official
19/TCP,UDP CHARGEN (Character Generator) protocol Official
20/TCP FTP - data port Official
21/TCP FTP - control (command) port Official
22/TCP,UDP SSH (Secure Shell) - used for secure logins, file transfers (scp, sftp) and port forwarding Official
23/TCP,UDP TELNET protocol - unencrypted text communications Official
25/TCP,UDP SMTP - used for e-mail routing between mailservers E-mails Official
26/TCP,UDP RSFTP - A simple FTP-like protocol Unofficial
35/TCP,UDP Any private printer server protocol Official
35/TCP,UDP QMS Magicolor 2 printer server protocol Unofficial
37/TCP,UDP TIME protocol Official
39/TCP,UDP Resource Location Protocol[1] (RLP) - used for determining the location of higher level services from hosts on a network Official
41/TCP,UDP Graphics Official
42/TCP,UDP nameserver, ARPA Host Name Server Protocol Official
42/TCP,UDP WINS Unofficial
43/TCP WHOIS protocol Official
49/TCP,UDP TACACS Login Host protocol Official
52/TCP,UDP XNS (Xerox Network Services) Time Protocol Official
53/TCP,UDP DNS (Domain Name Server) Official
54/TCP,UDP XNS (Xerox Network Services) Clearinghouse Official
56/TCP,UDP XNS (Xerox Network Services) Authentication Official
56/TCP,UDP RAP (Route Access Protocol)[2] Unofficial
57/TCP MTP, Mail Transfer Protocol Unofficial
58/TCP,UDP XNS (Xerox Network Services) Mail Official
67/UDP BOOTP (BootStrap Protocol) server; also used by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Official
68/UDP BOOTP client; also used by DHCP Official
69/UDP TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Official
70/TCP Gopher protocol Official
79/TCP Finger protocol Official
80/TCP HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), default web server port Official
81/TCP Torpark - Onion routing ORport Unofficial
82/UDP Torpark - Control Port Unofficial
83/TCP MIT ML Device Official
88/TCP Kerberos - authenticating agent Official
90/TCP,UDP dnsix (DoD Network Security for Information Exchange) Securit Attribute Token Map Official
90/TCP,UDP Pointcast Unofficial
101/TCP NIC host name Official
102/TCP ISO-TSAP (Transport Service Access Point) Class 0 protocol[3] Official
107/TCP Remote TELNET Service[4] protocol Official
109/TCP POP2, Post Office Protocol, version 2 Official
110/TCP POP3, Post Office Protocol, version 3 Official
111/TCP,UDP Sun Remote Procedure Call protocol Official
113/TCP ident - old server identification system, still used by IRC servers to identify its users Official
115/TCP SFTP, Simple File Transfer Protocol Official
117/TCP UUCP Path Service Official
118/TCP,UDP SQL (Structured Query Language) Services Official
119/TCP NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) - used for retrieving newsgroups messages Official
123/UDP NTP (Network Time Protocol) - used for time synchronization Official
135/TCP,UDP DCE endpoint resolution Official
135/TCP,UDP Microsoft EPMAP (End Point Mapper), also known as DCE/RPC Locator service[5], used to to remotely manage services including DHCP server, DNS server and WINS Unofficial
137/TCP,UDP NetBIOS NetBIOS Name Service Official
138/TCP,UDP NetBIOS NetBIOS Datagram Service Official
139/TCP,UDP NetBIOS NetBIOS Session Service Official
143/TCP,UDP IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol 4) - used for retrieving E-mails Official
152/TCP,UDP Background File Transfer Program (BFTP)[6] Official
153/TCP,UDP SGMP, Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol Official
156/TCP,UDP SQL Service Official
158/TCP,UDP DMSP, Distributed Mail Service Protocol Unofficial
161/TCP,UDP SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Official
162/TCP,UDP SNMPTRAP[7] protocol Official
170/TCP Print-srv, Network PostScript Official
179/TCP BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) Official
194/TCP IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Official
201/TCP,UDP AppleTalk Routing Maintenance Official
209/TCP,UDP The Quick Mail Transfer Protocol Official
213/TCP,UDP IPX Official
218/TCP,UDP MPP, Message Posting Protocol Official
220/TCP,UDP IMAP, Interactive Mail Access Protocol, version 3 Official
259/TCP,UDP ESRO, Efficient Short Remote Operations Official
264/TCP,UDP BGMP, Border Gateway Multicast Protocol Official
311/TCP AppleShare Admin-Tool, Workgroup-Manager-Tool Official
308/TCP Novastor Online Backup Official
318/TCP,UDP PKIX TSP, Time Stamp Protocol Official
323/TCP,UDP IMMP, Internet Message Mapping Protocol Unofficial
366/TCP,UDP ODMR, On-Demand Mail Relay Official
369/TCP,UDP Rpc2portmap Official
371/TCP,UDP ClearCase albd Official
383/TCP,UDP HP data alarm manager Official
384/TCP,UDP A Remote Network Server System Official
387/TCP,UDP AURP, AppleTalk Update-based Routing Protocol Official
389/TCP,UDP LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) Official
401/TCP,UDP UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply Official
411/TCP Direct Connect Hub port Unofficial
412/TCP Direct Connect Client-To-Client port Unofficial
427/TCP,UDP SLP (Service Location Protocol) Official
443/TCP HTTPS - HTTP Protocol over TLS/SSL (encrypted transmission) Official
444/TCP,UDP SNPP, Simple Network Paging Protocol Official
445/TCP Microsoft-DS Active Directory, Windows shares Official
445/UDP Microsoft-DS SMB file sharing Official
464/TCP,UDP Kerberos Change/Set password Official
465/TCP Cisco protocol Unofficial
465/TCP SMTP over SSL Unofficial
475/TCP tcpnethaspsrv (Hasp services, TCP/IP version) Official
497/TCP dantz backup service Official
500/UDP ISAKMP, IKE-Internet Key Exchange Official
502/TCP,UDP Modbus, Protocol Unofficial
512/TCP exec, Remote Process Execution Official
512/UDP comsat, together with biff Official
513/TCP Login Official
513/UDP Who Official
514/TCP rsh protocol - used to execute non-interactive commandline commands on a remote system Official
514/UDP syslog protocol - used for system logging Official
515/TCP Line Printer Daemon protocol - used in LPD printer servers Official
517/UDP Talk Official
518/UDP NTalk Official
520/TCP efs, extended file name server Official
520/UDP Routing - RIP Official
524/TCP,UDP NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) is used for a variety things such as access to primary NetWare server resources, Time Synchronization, etc. Official
525/UDP Timed, Timeserver Official
530/TCP,UDP RPC Official
531/TCP,UDP AOL Instant Messenger, IRC Unofficial
532/TCP netnews Official
533/UDP netwall, For Emergency Broadcasts Official
540/TCP UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy Protocol) Official
542/TCP,UDP commerce (Commerce Applications) Official
543/TCP klogin, Kerberos login Official
544/TCP kshell, Kerberos Remote shell Official
546/TCP,UDP DHCPv6 client Official
547/TCP,UDP DHCPv6 server Official
548/TCP AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) Official
550/UDP new-rwho, new-who Official
554/TCP,UDP RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) Official
556/TCP Remotefs, RFS, rfs_server Official
560/UDP rmonitor, Remote Monitor Official
561/UDP monitor Official
563/TCP,UDP NNTP protocol over TLS/SSL (NNTPS) Official
587/TCP email message submission (SMTP) (RFC 2476) Official
591/TCP FileMaker 6.0 (and later) Web Sharing (HTTP Alternate, also see port 80) Official
593/TCP,UDP HTTP RPC Ep Map, Remote procedure call over Hypertext Transfer Protocol, often used by Distributed Component Object Model services and Microsoft Exchange Server Official
604/TCP TUNNEL profile[8], a protocol for BEEP peers to form an application layer tunnel Official
631/TCP,UDP IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) Official
636/TCP,UDP LDAP over SSL (encrypted transmission, also known as LDAPS) Official
639/TCP,UDP MSDP, Multicast Source Discovery Protocol Official
646/TCP LDP, Label Distribution Protocol, a routing protocol used in MPLS networks Official
647/TCP DHCP Failover protocol[9] Official
648/TCP RRP (Registry Registrar Protocol)[10] Official
652/TCP DTCP, Dynamic Tunnel Configuration Protocol Unofficial
654/TCP AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) Official
655/TCP IEEE MMS (IEEE Media Management System)[11][12] Official
657/TCP,UDP IBM RMC (Remote monitoring and Control) protocol, used by System p5 AIX Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM)[13] and Hardware Management Console to connect managed logical partitions (LPAR) to enable dynamic partition reconfiguration Official
665/TCP sun-dr, Remote Dynamic Reconfiguration Unofficial
666/UDP Doom, First online first-person shooter Official
674/TCP ACAP (Application Configuration Access Protocol) Official
691/TCP MS Exchange Routing Official
692/TCP Hyperwave-ISP Official
694/UDP Linux-HA High availability Heartbeat port Unofficial
695/TCP IEEE-MMS-SSL (IEEE Media Management System over SSL)[14] Official
698/UDP OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) Official
699/TCP Access Network Official
700/TCP EPP (Extensible Provisioning Protocol), a protocol for communication between domain name registries and registrars Official
701/TCP LMP (Link Management Protocol (Internet))[15], a protocol that runs between a pair of nodes and is used to manage traffic engineering (TE) links Official
702/TCP IRIS[16][17] (Internet Registry Information Service) over BEEP (Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol)[18] Official
706/TCP SILC, Secure Internet Live Conferencing Official
711/TCP Cisco TDP, Tag Distribution Protocol[19][20][21] - being replaced by the MPLS Label Distribution Protocol[22] Official
712/TCP TBRPF, Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding routing protocol Official
712/UDP Promise RAID Controller Unofficial
720/TCP SMQP, Simple Message Queue Protocol Unofficial
749/TCP,UDP kerberos-adm, Kerberos administration Official
750/TCP rfile Official
750/UDP loadav Official
750/UDP kerberos-iv, Kerberos version IV Official
751/TCP,UDP pump Official
751/TCP,UDP kerberos_master, Kerberos authentication Unofficial
752/TCP qrh Official
752/UDP qrh Official
752/UDP userreg_server, Kerberos Password (kpasswd) server Unofficial
753/TCP Reverse Routing Header (rrh)[23] Official
753/UDP Reverse Routing Header (rrh) Official
753/UDP passwd_server, Kerberos userreg server Unofficial
754/TCP tell send Official
754/TCP krb5_prop, Kerberos v5 slave propagation Unofficial
754/UDP tell send Official
760/TCP,UDP ns Official
760/TCP,UDP krbupdate [kreg], Kerberos registration Unofficial
782/TCP Conserver serial-console management server Unofficial
829/TCP CMP (Certificate Management Protocol) Unofficial
860/TCP iSCSI Official
873/TCP rsync file synchronisation protocol default port Official
888/tcp cddbp, CD DataBase (CDDB) protocol (CDDBP) - unassigned but widespread use Unofficial
901/TCP Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT) Unofficial
902/TCP VMware Server Console[24] Unofficial
904/TCP VMware Server Alternate (if 902 is in use - i.e. SUSE linux) Unofficial
911/TCP Network Console on Acid (NCA) - local tty redirection over OpenSSH Unofficial
981/TCP SofaWare Technologies Remote HTTPS management for firewall devices running embedded Checkpoint Firewall-1 software Unofficial
989/TCP,UDP FTP Protocol (data) over TLS/SSL Official
990/TCP,UDP FTP Protocol (control) over TLS/SSL Official
991/TCP,UDP NAS (Netnews Administration System) Official
992/TCP,UDP TELNET protocol over TLS/SSL Official
993/TCP IMAP4 over SSL (encrypted transmission) Official
995/TCP POP3 over SSL (encrypted transmission) Official
1023/TCP,UDP IANA Reserved Official

[edit] Ports 1024 to 49151

Only those ports that are commonly used are listed, refer to the IANA list of port assignments for the full list.

When investigating TCP traffic, be careful not to confuse the client and server ports. The client port is incremental, typically beginning at 1024 at boot time and wrapping at 4096. If the port you are investigating is in the lower part of this range, it may be a client port. Stateful firewalls identify the server port, but packet sniffers and stateless firewalls do not. For example, a packet sniffer showing a TCP packet with source port 1080 and destination port 1494 might be either the SOCKetS or Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) protocols. The only way to know for sure is to examine the initial TCP handshake.

With UDP, client port selection depends on the application and may be incremental, fixed to a nonsensical value, or fixed equal to the server port.

Port Description Status
1024/tcp,udp IANA Reserved Official
1025/tcp NFS-or-IIS Unofficial
1026/tcp Often utilized by Microsoft DCOM services Unofficial
1029/tcp Often utilized by Microsoft DCOM services Unofficial
1058/tcp,udp nim, IBM AIX Network Installation Manager (NIM) Official
1059/tcp,udp nimreg, IBM AIX Network Installation Manager (NIM) Official
1080/tcp SOCKS proxy Official
1098/tcp,udp rmiactivation, RMI Activation Official
1099/tcp,udp rmiregistry, RMI Registry Official
1109 IANA Reserved Official
1109/tcp Kerberos Post Office Protocol (KPOP) Unofficial
1140/tcp,udp AutoNOC Network Operations protocol Official
1167/udp phone, conference calling Unofficial
1176/tcp Perceptive Automation Indigo Home automation server Official
1182/tcp,udp AcceleNet Intelligent Transfer Protocol Official
1194/tcp,udp OpenVPN Official
1198/tcp,udp The cajo project Free dynamic transparent distributed computing in Java Official
1200/tcp scol, protocol used by SCOL 3D virtual worlds server to answer world name resolution client request[25] Official
1200/udp scol, protocol used by SCOL 3D virtual worlds server to answer world name resolution client request Official
1200/udp Steam Friends Applet Unofficial
1214/tcp Kazaa Official
1223/tcp,udp TGP, TrulyGlobal Protocol, also known as "The Gur Protocol" (named for Gur Kimchi of TrulyGlobal) Official
1241/tcp,udp Nessus Security Scanner Official
1248/tcp NSClient/NSClient++/NC_Net (Nagios) Unofficial
1270/tcp,udp Microsoft System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) (formerly Microsoft Operations Manager (MOM)) agent Official
1311/tcp Dell Open Manage Https Port Unofficial
1313/tcp Xbiim (Canvii server) Port Unofficial
1337/tcp WASTE Encrypted File Sharing Program Unofficial
1352/tcp IBM Lotus Notes/Domino Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol Official
1387/tcp,udp cadsi-lm, LMS International (formerly Computer Aided Design Software, Inc. (CADSI)) LM Official
1414/tcp IBM WebSphere MQ (formerly known as MQSeries) default Official
1431/tcp Reverse Gossip Transport Protocol (RGTP), used to access a General-purpose Reverse-Ordered Gossip Gathering System (GROGGS) bulletin board, such as that implemented on the Cambridge University's Phoenix system Official
1433/tcp,udp Microsoft SQL Server database management system Server Official
1434/tcp,udp Microsoft SQL Server database management system Monitor Official
1494/tcp Citrix XenApp Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) thin client protocol Official
1512/tcp,udp Microsoft Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) Official
1521/tcp nCube License Manager Official
1521/tcp Oracle database default listener, in future releases official port 2483 Unofficial
1524/tcp,udp ingreslock, ingres Official
1526/tcp Oracle database common alternative for listener Unofficial
1533/tcp IBM Sametime IM - Virtual Places Chat Official
1547/tcp,udp Laplink Official
1550 Gadu-Gadu (Direct Client-to-Client) Unofficial
1581/udp MIL STD 2045-47001 VMF Official
1589/udp Cisco VQP (VLAN Query Protocol) / VMPS Unofficial
1645/tcp,udp radius, RADIUS authentication protocol (default for Cisco and Juniper Networks RADIUS servers) Unofficial
1646/tcp,udp radacct, RADIUS accounting protocol (default for Cisco and Juniper Networks RADIUS servers) Unofficial
1627 iSketch Unofficial
1677/tcp,udp Novell GroupWise clients in client/server access mode Official
1701/udp L2f, Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol & L2p, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Official
1716/tcp America's Army Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) default game port Unofficial
1723/tcp,udp Microsoft PPTP VPN Official
1725/udp Valve Steam Client Unofficial
1755/tcp,udp Microsoft Media Services (MMS, ms-streaming) Official
1761/tcp,udp cft-0 Official
1761/tcp Novell Zenworks Remote Control utility Unofficial
1762-1768/tcp,udp cft-1 to cft-7 Official
1812/tcp,udp radius, RADIUS authentication protocol Official
1813/tcp,udp radacct, RADIUS accounting protocol Official
1863/tcp MSNP (Microsoft Notification Protocol), used by the .NET Messenger Service and a number of Instant Messaging clients Official
1900/udp Microsoft SSDP Enables discovery of UPnP devices Official
1935/tcp Adobe Macromedia Flash Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) "plain" protocol Official
1970/tcp,udp Danware NetOp Remote Control Official
1971/tcp,udp Danware NetOp School Official
1972/tcp,udp InterSystems Caché Official
1975-77/udp Cisco TCO (Documentation) Official
1984/tcp Big Brother - network monitoring tool Official
1985/udp Cisco HSRP Official
1994/tcp,udp Cisco STUN-SDLC (Serial Tunneling - Synchronous Data Link Control) protocol Official
1998/tcp,udp Cisco X.25 over TCP (XOT) service Official
2000/tcp,udp Cisco SCCP (Skinny) Official
2002/tcp Secure Access Control Server (ACS) for Windows Unofficial
2030 Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server Unofficial
2031/tcp,udp mobrien-chat - Mike O'Brien November 2004 Official
2049/udp nfs, NFS Server Official
2049/udp shilp Official
2053/udp lot105-ds-upd Lot105 DSuper Updates Official
2053/tcp lot105-ds-upd Lot105 DSuper Updates Official
2053/tcp knetd Kerberos de-multiplexor Unofficial
2056/udp Civilization 4 multiplayer Unofficial
2073/tcp,udp DataReel Database Official
2074/tcp,udp Vertel VMF SA (i.e. App.. SpeakFreely) Official
2082/tcp Infowave Mobility Server Official
2082/tcp CPanel, default port Unofficial
2083/tcp Secure Radius Service (radsec) Official
2083/tcp CPanel default SSL port Unofficial
2086/tcp GNUnet Official
2086/tcp WebHost Manager default port Unofficial
2087/tcp WebHost Manager default SSL port Unofficial
2095/tcp CPanel default webmail port Unofficial
2096/tcp CPanel default SSL webmail port Unofficial
2102/tcp,udp zephyr-srv Project Athena Zephyr Notification Service server Official
2103/tcp,udp zephyr-clt Project Athena Zephyr Notification Service serv-hm connection Official
2104/tcp,udp zephyr-hm Project Athena Zephyr Notification Service hostmanager Official
2105/tcp,udp IBM MiniPay Official
2105/tcp,udp eklogin Kerberos encrypted remote login (rlogin) Unofficial
2105/tcp,udp zephyr-hm-srv Project Athena Zephyr Notification Service hm-serv connection (should use port 2102) Unofficial
2161/tcp APC Agent Official
2181/tcp,udp EForward-document transport system Official
2190/udp TiVoConnect Beacon Unofficial
2200/udp Tuxanci game server Unofficial
2219/tcp,udp NetIQ NCAP Protocol Official
2220/tcp,udp NetIQ End2End Official
2222/tcp DirectAdmin's default port Unofficial
2222/udp Microsoft Office OS X antipiracy network monitor [1] Unofficial
2301/tcp HP System Management Redirect to port 2381 Unofficial
2302/udp ArmA multiplayer (default for game) Unofficial
2302/udp Halo: Combat Evolved multiplayer Unofficial
2303/udp ArmA multiplayer (default for server reporting) (default port for game +1) Unofficial
2305/udp ArmA multiplayer (default for VoN) (default port for game +3) Unofficial
2369/tcp Default port for BMC Software CONTROL-M/Server - Configuration Agent port number - though often changed during installation Unofficial
2370/tcp Default port for BMC Software CONTROL-M/Server - Port utilized to allow the CONTROL-M/Enterprise Manager to connect to the CONTROL-M/Server - though often changed during installation Unofficial
2381/tcp HP Insight Manager default port for webserver Unofficial
2404/tcp IEC 60870-5-104, used to send electric power telecontrol messages between two systems via directly connected data circuits Official
2427/udp Cisco MGCP Official
2447/tcp,udp ovwdb - OpenView Network Node Manager (NNM) daemon Official
2483/tcp,udp Oracle database listening port for unsecure client connections to the listener, replaces port 1521 Official
2484/tcp,udp Oracle database listening port for SSL client connections to the listener Official
2546/tcp,udp Vytal Vault - Data Protection Services Unofficial
2593/tcp,udp RunUO - Ultima Online server Unofficial
2598/tcp new ICA - when Session Reliability is enabled, TCP port 2598 replaces port 1494 Unofficial
2612/tcp,udp QPasa from MQSoftware Official
2710/tcp XBT Bittorrent Tracker Unofficial
2710/udp XBT Bittorrent Tracker experimental UDP tracker extension Unofficial
2710/tcp Unofficial
2735/tcp,udp NetIQ Monitor Console Official
2809/tcp corbaloc:iiop URL, per the CORBA 3.0.3 specification Official
2809/tcp IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS) Bootstrap/rmi default port Unofficial
2809/udp corbaloc:iiop URL, per the CORBA 3.0.3 specification. Official
2944/udp Megaco Text H.248 Unofficial
2945/udp Megaco Binary (ASN.1) H.248 Unofficial
2948/tcp,udp WAP-push Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Official
2949/tcp,udp WAP-pushsecure Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Official
2967/tcp Symantec AntiVirus Corporate Edition Unofficial
3000/tcp Miralix License server Unofficial
3000/udp Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), modifiable default port Unofficial
3001/tcp Miralix Phone Monitor Unofficial
3002/tcp Miralix CSTA Unofficial
3003/tcp Miralix GreenBox API Unofficial
3004/tcp Miralix InfoLink Unofficial
3006/tcp Miralix SMS Client Connector Unofficial
3007/tcp Miralix OM Server Unofficial
3025/tcp Unofficial
3050/tcp,udp gds_db (Interbase/Firebird) Official
3074/tcp,udp Xbox Live Official
3128/tcp HTTP used by web caches and the default port for the Squid cache Unofficial
3260/tcp,udp iSCSI target Official
3268/tcp,udp msft-gc, Microsoft Global Catalog (LDAP service which contains data from Active Directory forests) Official
3269/tcp,udp msft-gc-ssl, Microsoft Global Catalog over SSL (similar to port 3268, LDAP over SSL) Official
3283/tcp Apple Remote Desktop Unofficial
3300/tcp TripleA game server Unofficial
3305/tcp,udp odette-ftp, Odette File Transfer Protocol (OFTP) Official
3306/tcp,udp MySQL Database system Official
3333/tcp Network Caller ID server Unofficial
3386/tcp,udp GTP' 3GPP GSM/UMTS CDR logging protocol Official
3389/tcp Microsoft Terminal Server (RDP) officially registered as Windows Based Terminal (WBT) Unofficial
3396/tcp,udp Novell NDPS Printer Agent Official
3689/tcp,udp DAAP Digital Audio Access Protocol used by Apple’s iTunes Official
3690/tcp,udp Subversion version control system Official
3702/tcp,udp Web Services Dynamic Discovery (WS-Discovery), used by various components of Windows Vista Official
3724/tcp,udp World of Warcraft Online gaming MMORPG Official
3784/tcp,udp Ventrilo VoIP program used by Ventrilo Unofficial
3785/udp Ventrilo VoIP program used by Ventrilo Unofficial
3868 tcp Diameter base protocol Official
3872/tcp Oracle Management Remote Agent Unofficial
3899/tcp Remote Administrator Unofficial
3900/tcp Unidata UDT OS udt_os Official
3945/tcp,udp EMCADS server service port, a Giritech product used by G/On Official
4000/tcp,udp Diablo II game Unofficial
4007/tcp PrintBuzzer printer monitoring socket server Unofficial
4089/tcp,udp OpenCORE Remote Control Service Official
4093/tcp,udp PxPlus Client server interface ProvideX Official
4096/tcp,udp Bridge-Relay Element ASCOM Official
4100 WatchGuard Authentication Applet - default port Unofficial
4111/tcp,udp Xgrid Official
4111/tcp Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server - default administration port Unofficial
4125/tcp Remote Web Workplace - default administration port Unofficial
4226/tcp,udp Aleph One (computer game) Unofficial
4224/tcp Cisco CDP Cisco discovery Protocol Unofficial
4569/udp Inter-Asterisk eXchange Unofficial
4662/tcp,udp OrbitNet Message Service Official
4662/tcp port often used by eMule Unofficial
4664/tcp Google Desktop Search Unofficial
4672/udp eMule - port often used Unofficial
4747/tcp Apprentice Unofficial
4750/tcp BladeLogic Agent Unofficial
4894/tcp,udp LysKOM Protocol A Official
4899/tcp,udp Radmin remote administration tool (program sometimes used as a Trojan horse) Official
5000/tcp commplex-main Official
5000/tcp UPnP - Windows network device interoperability Unofficial
5000/tcp,udp VTun - VPN Software Unofficial
5001/tcp,udp Iperf (Tool for measuring TCP and UDP bandwidth performance) Unofficial
5001/tcp Slingbox and Slingplayer Unofficial
5003/tcp,udp FileMaker Filemaker Pro Official
5004/tcp,udp RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) media data Official
5005/tcp,udp RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) control protocol Official
5031/tcp,udp AVM CAPI-over-TCP (ISDN over Ethernet tunneling) Unofficial
5050/tcp Yahoo! Messenger Unofficial
5051/tcp ita-agent Symantec Intruder Alert Official
5060/tcp,udp Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Official
5061/tcp Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) over TLS Official
5093/udp SPSS License Administrator (SPSS) Unofficial
5104/tcp IBM NetCOOL / IMPACT HTTP Service Unofficial
5106/tcp A-Talk Common connection Unofficial
5107/tcp A-Talk Remote server connection Unofficial
5110/tcp ProRat Server Unofficial
5121/tcp Neverwinter Nights Unofficial
5176/tcp ConsoleWorks default UI interface Unofficial
5190/tcp ICQ and AOL Instant Messenger Official
5222/tcp,udp XMPP/Jabber|Google Talk - client connection Official
5223/tcp XMPP/Jabber - default port for SSL Client Connection Unofficial
5269/tcp,udp XMPP/Jabber - server connection Official
5351/tcp,udp NAT Port Mapping Protocol - client-requested configuration for inbound connections through network address translators Official
5353/tcp,udp mDNS - multicastDNS Official
5355/udp,tcp LLMNR - Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution, allows hosts to perform name resolution for hosts on the same local link (only provided by Windows Vista and Server 2008) Official
5402/tcp,udp mftp, Stratacache OmniCast content delivery system MFTP file sharing protocol Official
5405/tcp,udp NetSupport Official
5421/tcp,udp Net Support 2 Official
5432/tcp,udp PostgreSQL database system Official
5445/udp Cisco Unified Video Advantage Unofficial
5495/tcp Applix TM1 Admin server Unofficial
5498/tcp Hotline tracker server connection Unofficial
5499/udp Hotline tracker server discovery Unofficial
5500/tcp VNC remote desktop protocol - for incoming listening viewer, Hotline control connection Unofficial
5501/tcp Hotline file transfer connection Unofficial
5517/tcp Setiqueue Proxy server client for SETI@Home project Unofficial
5555/tcp Freeciv multiplay port for versions up to 2.0, Hewlett Packard Data Protector, SAP Unofficial
5556/tcp,udp Freeciv multiplay port Official
5631/tcp,udp pcANYWHEREdata, Symantec pcAnywhere Official
5632/tcp,udp pcANYWHEREstat, Symantec pcAnywhere Official
5666/tcp NRPE (Nagios) Unofficial
5667/tcp NSCA (Nagios) Unofficial
5800/tcp VNC remote desktop protocol - for use over HTTP Unofficial
5814/tcp,udp Hewlett-Packard Support Automation (HP OpenView Self-Healing Services) Official
5900/tcp,udp VNC remote desktop protocol (used by ARD) Official
5938/tcp,udp TeamViewer remote desktop protocol Unofficial
5984/tcp,udp CouchDB database server Official
6000/tcp X11 - used between an X client and server over the network Official
6001/udp X11 - used between an X client and server over the network Official
6005/tcp Default port for BMC Software CONTROL-M/Server - Socket Port number used for communication between CONTROL-M processes - though often changed during installation Unofficial
6050/tcp Brightstor Arcserve Backup Unofficial
6051/tcp Brightstor Arcserve Backup Unofficial
6100/tcp Vizrt System Unofficial
6110/tcp,udp softcm HP SoftBench CM Official
6111/tcp,udp spc HP SoftBench Sub-Process Control Official
6112/tcp,udp "dtspcd" - a network daemon that accepts requests from clients to execute commands and launch applications remotely Official
6112/tcp Blizzard's gaming service, ArenaNet gaming service Unofficial
6129/tcp Dameware Remote Control Unofficial
6257/udp WinMX (see also 6699) Unofficial
6346/tcp,udp gnutella-svc, default Gnutella port (FrostWire, Limewire, Shareaza, etc.) Official
6347/tcp,udp gnutella-rtr, alternative Gnutella port Official
6444/tcp,udp Sun Grid Engine - Qmaster Service Official
6445/tcp,udp Sun Grid Engine - Execution Service Official
6502/tcp,udp Danware Data NetOp Remote Control Unofficial
6522/tcp Gobby (and other libobby-based software) Unofficial
6543/udp Jetnet - default port that the Paradigm Research & Development Jetnet protocol communicates on Unofficial
6566/tcp SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) - SANE network scanner daemon Unofficial
6600/tcp Music Playing Daemon (MPD) Unofficial
6619/tcp,udp odette-ftps, Odette File Transfer Protocol (OFTP) over TLS/SSL Official
6665-6669/tcp Internet Relay Chat Official
6679/tcp IRC SSL (Secure Internet Relay Chat) - port often used Unofficial
6697/tcp IRC SSL (Secure Internet Relay Chat) - port often used Unofficial
6699/tcp WinMX (see also 6257) Unofficial
6771/udp Polycom server broadcast Unofficial
6881-6887/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6888/tcp,udp MUSE Official
6888/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6889-6890/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6891-6900/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6891-6900/tcp,udp Windows Live Messenger (File transfer) Unofficial
6901/tcp,udp Windows Live Messenger (Voice) Unofficial
6901/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6902-6968/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
6969/tcp,udp acmsoda Official
6969/tcp BitTorrent tracker port Unofficial
6970-6999/tcp,udp BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial
7000/tcp Default port for Azureus's built in HTTPS Bittorrent Tracker Unofficial
7001/tcp Default port for BEA WebLogic Server's HTTP server - though often changed during installation Unofficial
7002/tcp Default port for BEA WebLogic Server's HTTPS server - though often changed during installation Unofficial
7005/tcp,udp Default port for BMC Software CONTROL-M/Server and CONTROL-M/Agent's - Agent to Server port though often changed during installation Unofficial
7006/tcp,udp Default port for BMC Software CONTROL-M/Server and CONTROL-M/Agent's - Server to Agent port though often changed during installation Unofficial
7010/tcp Default port for Cisco AON AMC (AON Management Console) [2] Unofficial
7025/tcp Zimbra - lmtp [mailbox] - local mail delivery Unofficial
7047/tcp Zimbra - conversion server Unofficial
7133/tcp Enemy Territory: Quake Wars Unofficial
7171/tcp Tibia Unofficial
7306/tcp Zimbra - mysql [mailbox] Unofficial
7307/tcp Zimbra - mysql [logger] - logger Unofficial
7312/udp Sibelius License Server port Unofficial
7670/tcp BrettspielWelt BSW Boardgame Portal Unofficial
7777/tcp Default port used by Windows backdoor program tini.exe Unofficial
7831/tcp Default port used by Smartlaunch Internet Cafe Administration[26] software Unofficial
8000/tcp,udp iRDMI - often mistakenly used instead of port 8080 Official
8000/tcp Common port used for internet radio streams such as those using SHOUTcast Unofficial
8002/tcp Cisco Systems Unified Call Manager Intercluster Port Unofficial
8008/tcp HTTP Alternate Official
8008/tcp IBM HTTP Server default administration port Unofficial
8010/tcp XMPP/Jabber File transfers Unofficial
8074/tcp Gadu-Gadu Unofficial
8080/tcp HTTP Alternate (http_alt) - commonly used for web proxy and caching server, or for running a web server as a non-root user Official
8080/tcp Apache Tomcat Unofficial
8086/tcp HELM Web Host Automation Windows Control Panel Unofficial
8086/tcp Kaspersky AV Control Center TCP Port Unofficial
8087/tcp Hosting Accelerator Control Panel Unofficial
8087/udp Kaspersky AV Control Center UDP Port Unofficial
8090/tcp Another HTTP Alternate (http_alt_alt) - used as an alternative to port 8080 Unofficial
8118/tcp Privoxy web proxy - advertisements-filtering web proxy Official
8087/tcp SW Soft Plesk Control Panel Unofficial
8200/tcp GoToMyPC Unofficial
8220/tcp Bloomberg Unofficial
8222 VMware Server Management User Interface (insecure web interface)[27]. See also, port 8333 Unofficial
8291/tcp Winbox - Default port on a MikroTik RouterOS for a Windows application used to administer MikroTik RouterOS Unofficial
8294/tcp Bloomberg Unofficial
8333 VMware Server Management User Interface (secure web interface)[28]. See also, port 8222 Unofficial
8400/tcp,udp cvp, Commvault Unified Data Management Official
8443/tcp SW Soft Plesk Control Panel Unofficial
8500/tcp ColdFusion Macromedia/Adobe ColdFusion default Webserver port Unofficial
8501/udp Duke Nukem 3D - Default Online Port Unofficial
8767/udp TeamSpeak - Default UDP Port Unofficial
8880/udp cddbp-alt, CD DataBase (CDDB) protocol (CDDBP) - alternate Official
8880/tcp cddbp-alt, CD DataBase (CDDB) protocol (CDDBP) - alternate Official
8880/tcp WebSphere Application Server SOAP connector default port Unofficial
8881/tcp Atlasz Informatics Research Ltd Secure Application Server Unofficial
8882/tcp Atlasz Informatics Research Ltd Secure Application Server Unofficial
8888/tcp,udp NewsEDGE server Official
8888/tcp Sun Answerbook dwhttpd server (deprecated by Unofficial
8888/tcp GNUmp3d HTTP music streaming and web interface port Unofficial
8888/tcp LoLo Catcher HTTP web interface port ( Unofficial
9000/tcp Buffalo LinkSystem web access Unofficial
9000/tcp DBGp Unofficial
9000/udp UDPCast Unofficial
9001 cisco-xremote router configuration Unofficial
9001 Tor network default port Unofficial
9001/tcp DBGp Proxy Unofficial
9009/tcp,udp Pichat Server - Peer to peer chat software Official
9043/tcp WebSphere Application Server Administration Console secure port Unofficial
9060/tcp WebSphere Application Server Administration Console Unofficial
9080/udp glrpc, Groove Collaboration software GLRPC port Official
9080/tcp glrpc, Groove Collaboration software GLRPC port Official
9080/tcp WebSphere Application Server Http Transport (port 1) default Unofficial
9090/tcp Openfire Administration Console Unofficial
9100/tcp Jetdirect HP Print Services Official
9110/udp SSMP Message protocol Unofficial
9101 Bacula Director Official
9102 Bacula File Daemon Official
9103 Bacula Storage Daemon Official
9119/tcp,udp MXit Instant Messenger Official
9418/tcp,udp git, Git pack transfer service Official
9535/tcp mngsuite, LANDesk Management Suite Remote Control Official
9535/tcp BBOS001, IBM Websphere Application Server (WAS) High Avail Mgr Com Port Unofficial
9443/tcp WebSphere Application Server Http Transport (port 2) default Unofficial
9535/udp mngsuite, LANDesk Management Suite Remote Control Official
9800/tcp,udp WebDAV Source Port Official
9800 WebCT e-learning portal Unofficial
9999 Hydranode - edonkey2000 TELNET control port Unofficial
9999/tcp Lantronix UDS-10/UDS100[29] RS-485 to Ethernet Converter TELNET control port Unofficial
9999 Urchin Web Analytics Unofficial
10000 Webmin - web based Linux admin tool Unofficial
10000 BackupExec Unofficial
10001/tcp Lantronix UDS-10/UDS100[30] RS-485 to Ethernet Converter default port Unofficial
10008/tcp,udp Octopus Multiplexer, primary port for the CROMP protocol, which provides a platform-independent means for communication of objects across a network Official
10017 AIX,NeXT, HPUX - rexd daemon control port Unofficial
10024/tcp Zimbra - smtp [mta] - to amavis from postfix Unofficial
10025/tcp Ximbra - smtp [mta] - back to postfix from amavis Unofficial
10050/tcp,udp Zabbix-Agent Official
10051/tcp,udp Zabbix-Trapper Official
10113/tcp,udp NetIQ Endpoint Official
10114/tcp,udp NetIQ Qcheck Official
10115/tcp,udp NetIQEndpoint Official
10116/tcp,udp NetIQ VoIP Assessor Official
10200/tcp FRISK Software International's fpscand virus scanning daemon for Unix platforms [3] Unofficial
10200-10204/tcp FRISK Software International's f-protd virus scanning daemon for Unix platforms [4] Unofficial
10308 Lock-on: Modarn Air Combat Unofficial
10480 SWAT 4 Dedicated Server Unofficial
11211 memcached Unofficial
11235 Savage:Battle for Newerth Server Hosting Unofficial
11294 Blood Quest Online Server Unofficial
11371 OpenPGP HTTP Keyserver Official
11576 IPStor Server management communication Unofficial
12035/udp Linden Lab viewer to sim Unofficial
12345 NetBus - remote administration tool (often Trojan horse). Also used by NetBuster. Little Fighter 2 (TCP). Unofficial
12975/tcp LogMeIn Hamachi (VPN tunnel software; also port 32976) - used to connect to Mediation Server (; will attempt to use SSL (TCP port 443) if both 12975 & 32976 fail to connect Unofficial
13000-13050/udp Linden Lab viewer to sim Unofficial
13720/tcp,udp Symantec NetBackup - bprd (formerly VERITAS) Official
13721/tcp,udp Symantec NetBackup - bpdbm (formerly VERITAS) Official
13724/tcp,udp Symantec Network Utility - vnetd (formerly VERITAS) Official
13782/tcp,udp Symantec NetBackup - bpcd (formerly VERITAS) Official
13783/tcp,udp Symantec VOPIED protocol (formerly VERITAS) Official
13785/tcp,udp Symantec NetBackup Database - nbdb (formerly VERITAS) Official
13786/tcp,udp Symantec nomdb (formerly VERITAS) Official
14567/udp Battlefield 1942 and mods Unofficial
15000/tcp psyBNC Unofficial
15000/tcp Wesnoth Unofficial
15000/tcp hydap, Hypack Hydrographic Software Packages Data Acquisition Official
15000/udp hydap, Hypack Hydrographic Software Packages Data Acquisition Official
15567/udp Battlefield Vietnam and mods Unofficial
15345/tcp,udp XPilot Contact Port Official
16000/tcp shroudBNC Unofficial
16080/tcp Mac OS X Server performance cache for HTTP[31] Unofficial
16384/udp Iron Mountain Digital - online backup Unofficial
16567/udp Battlefield 2 and mods Unofficial
19226/tcp Panda Software AdminSecure Communication Agent Unofficial
19638/tcp Ensim Control Panel Unofficial
19813/tcp 4D database Client Server Communication Unofficial
20000 DNP (Distributed Network Protocol), a protocol used in SCADA systems between communicating RTU's and IED's Official
20000 Usermin, web based user tool Unofficial
20720/tcp Symantec i3 Web GUI server Unofficial
22347/tcp,udp WibuKey, default port used for communications between the WibuKey Network Server and the WibuKey run-time client for the WIBU-SYSTEMS AG Software protection system Official
22350/tcp,udp CodeMeter, default port used for communications with the CodeMeter Server for the WIBU-SYSTEMS AG Software protection system Official
24554/tcp,udp BINKP, Fidonet mail transfers over TCP/IP Official
24800 Synergy: keyboard/mouse sharing software Unofficial
24842 StepMania: Online: Dance Dance Revolution Simulator Unofficial
25999/tcp Xfire Unofficial
26000/tcp,udp id Software's Quake server Official
26000/tcp CCP's EVE Online Online gaming MMORPG Unofficial
27000/udp (through 27006) id Software's QuakeWorld master server Unofficial
27010 Half-Life and its mods, such as Counter-Strike Unofficial
27015 Half-Life and its mods, such as Counter-Strike Unofficial
27374 Sub7's default port. Most script kiddies do not change the default port. Unofficial
27500/udp (through 27900) id Software's QuakeWorld Unofficial
27888/udp Kaillera server Unofficial
27900 (through 27901) Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection Unofficial
27901/udp (through 27910) id Software's Quake II master server Unofficial
27960/udp (through 27969) Activision's Enemy Territory and id Software's Quake III Arena and Quake III and some ioquake3 derived games Unofficial
28910 Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection Unofficial
28960 Call of Duty 2 Common Call of Duty 2 port - (PC Version) Unofficial
28961 Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare Common Call of Duty 4 port - (PC Version) Unofficial
29900 (through 29901) Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection Unofficial
29920 Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection Unofficial
30000 Pokemon Netbattle Unofficial
30564/tcp Multiplicity: keyboard/mouse/clipboard sharing software Unofficial
31337/tcp Back Orifice - remote administration tool (often Trojan horse) Unofficial
31337/tcp xc0r3 - xc0r3 security antivir port Unofficial
31415 ThoughtSignal - Server Communication Service (often Informational) Unofficial
31456-31458/tcp TetriNET ports (in order: IRC, game, and spectating) Unofficial
32245/tcp MMTSG-mutualed over MMT (encrypted transmission) Unofficial
32976/tcp LogMeIn Hamachi (VPN tunnel software; also port 12975) - used to connect to Mediation Server (; will attempt to use SSL (TCP port 443) if both 12975 & 32976 fail to connect Unofficial
33434/tcp,upd traceroute Official
34443 Linksys PSUS4 print server Unofficial
37777/tcp Digital Video Recorder hardware Unofficial
36963 Counter Strike 2D multiplayer port (2D clone of popular CounterStrike computer game) Unofficial
40000/tcp,upd SafetyNET p Real-time Industrial Ethernet protocol Official
43594-43595/tcp RuneScape Unofficial
47808/tcp,upd BACnet Building Automation and Control Networks Official
49151 IANA Reserved Official